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Urban Studies Cleveland: The African-American

Answer all questions completely. All answers must be between one and two full pages, double spaced, 12 fonts, for each question. No bold text PLEASE!! Upon completion of this exam it must be posted on Blackboard as an attachment in Word or Rich text format by 12:00 noon Monday, October 13, 2014. No late submissions!!! Make sure your name is on your paper and the answers correspond to the number of the question.

1. Explain, in detail, who was Moses Cleaveland, what were his goals for the Western Reserve?

2. Prior to 1915, there was little evidence that there was discrimination towards Blacks in hospitals. Explain, in detail, how hospitals and the health field in general dealt with black patients, black medical students, black physicians, and black nurses. In addition, what were the two hospitals, in Cleveland, that willingly treated blacks before the Great Migration?

3. Explain and describe the two main Black churches in Cleveland during the early era, the class distinction of those who attended those churches, and the class distinction of those who attended the other churches during that era.

4. Explain who Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. DuBois were and their philosophies on race. Make sure to include how they were similar or how they differed in their philosophies.

Urban Studies Cleveland: The African-American

1. Explain, in detail, who was Moses Cleaveland, what were his goals for the Western Reserve?
Moses Cleaveland was born on January 29, 1754 in Canterbury, Windham County, Connecticut, United States of America. He graduated in 1777 from Yale University after doing law and in the same year he joined the Continental Army at time when the Revolutionary War raged United States. He held the rank of commissioned agent in Second Connecticut Regiment and later became a General. In 1779, after the creation of Corps of Engineers he became the captain of combat engineers. After resigning from the army in 1781, he established a law firm in Canterbury where he practiced law. As a member of the Connecticut convention, Moses played a key role during the ratification of the constitution of United States. He was elected several times as a member of Connecticut general Assembly. Cleaveland was a Freemason after being initiated in a military lodge where he later became W. Master of Moriah Lodge. He was a major shareholder of Connecticut Land Company- a private speculation firm. The company purchased three million acres of land at $1.2 million from the State of Connecticut; the land was commonly referred to as Western Reserve or New Connecticut. In 1796, he led a group of surveyors and others crew members in surveying of the Reserve. He also negotiated land rights with the Native Americans who inhabited the Reserve and constantly challenged his team from surveying the land. Cleaveland gave the Native Americans whisky, livestock, and various trinkets in exchange for his safety and that of members of his crew. Moses went home after the expedition, and he did not return to Ohio; he died in 1806 at Canterbury aged 52.

Cleaveland’s goals for Western Reserve were to survey and subdivide the land into portions that would later be allocated to the company shareholders. According to the shareholder’s agreement, the land was to be divided into equal square townships of side five miles in length. His expedition intended to run the township lines between the border of Pennsylvania and the Cuyahoga River. He also planned to lay out a town site adjacent to River Cuyahoga mouth. Cleaveland decided to make the land that was in the east of the river as the capital of the new settlement. His goal was to create a town that would grow and become as large as Old Windham. Cleaveland and his team of surveyors laid a town and set aside a 10-acre Public Square, on an elevated plot overlooking Lake Erie on the north and River Cuyahoga on west.

2. Prior to 1915, there was little evidence that there was discrimination towards Blacks in hospitals. Explain, in detail, how hospitals and the health field in general dealt with black patients, black medical students, black physicians, and black nurses. In addition, what were the two hospitals, in Cleveland that willingly treated blacks before the Great Migration?

Prior to 1915 Cleveland, medical institutions did not have discrimination policies against black patients, black medical students, black physicians, and black nurses. The practice of excluding black physicians and segregating African-Americans patients in separate wards started after the mass migration of Blacks from South in early twentieth century. There were no black ghetto and black and white families were interspersed. During the mid ninetieth century, social and economic situations of African-Americans in Cleveland were superior to that of other cities. The African-Americans were not segregated in social places like restaurants hotels, schools, and hospitals. Their children attended the same public schools as those of white settlers, and Black students would continue with their education to the college levels. Prior to 1915, Blacks in Cleveland worked alongside white tradesmen, mingled at lectures, lived in neighborhoods among whites, and dined in restaurants. The mass migration of blacks from South made increased their population, it resulted in competition between blacks and whites and the start of prejudice. However, African-Americans had limited educational opportunities especially in medical field prior to the Civil War. Only a small number of them were trained physicians, medical doctors, surgeons, and nurses because medical education was not open to Blacks. Most of the Blacks received medical education in Europe or Canada and a few Christian mission medical schools. There were very few medical schools that were willing to admit African-Americans medical students despite their excellence in academics. However, Black medical colleges such as the Washington based Howard University College of Medicine and Meharry Medical College allowed training and treatment of Blacks.

The general public in Cleveland in mid-nineteenth century viewed hospitals as places where people were taken as they waited to die. The few existing hospitals served the homeless, poor, and the Civil War casualties. The hospitals lacked trained medical personnel and depended on a few dedicated caregivers who had chosen nursing as a vocation. Saint Vincent Charity Hospital and Health Center opened in 1865 and was administered by Sisters of Charity of St. Augustine. The hospital provided healthcare to the poor and homeless and private paying patients. The Cleveland City Hospital provided medical care to aged, chronically ill, mentally impaired, poor patients. The hospital accepted black patients and offered training to black medical students.

3. Explain and describe the two main Black churches in Cleveland during the early era, the class distinction of those who attended those churches, and the class distinction of those who attended the other churches during that era.
Majority of Cleveland settlers were New Englanders, and many were also evangelic and reform-minded Christians. They advocated the abolition of slavery and were great supporters of ant-slavery movement. The Blacks in Cleveland enjoyed a more level playing ground than their counterparts in other cities. African-American in Cleveland did not suffer employment segmentation nor segregated in churches, schools, theaters, restaurants, and hotels. Many Blacks were unskilled, but the third was skilled workers and had accumulated reasonable wealth. The establishment of African-American churches in Cleveland was slower than in other towns. The Black leaders in Cleveland fought for integration instead of developing their separate institutions; this resulted in slower development of Black institutions such as churches and schools. The first churches in Cleveland were St. John’s African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church and Mt. Zion Congregational Church established in 1830 and 1864 respectively. The AME continued with the traditions of being under the jurisdiction of bishops while others cherished local churches autonomy. The churches at first acted as a haven for blacks who were fleeing from South due to racial violence and economic hardship. The black churches grew as the population of blacks from South settles in Cleveland. The black churches were predominantly attended by African-Americans who had carried worshipping traditions from South. The worshippers who attended black churches included the early black settlers who were wealthy, skilled and unskilled black workers, and domestic workers. Black churches started in store-front churches with about 20 members that would later grow into cathedrals with towering spires with thousands black worshipers. Worshipper sang while rhythmically clapping their hands and tapping their feet. Worshippers also involved brass horns, single tambourine, majestic pipes, or bass guitar. The other churches included Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Lutheran, and Episcopal churches. These churches were dominated by whites from different countries of origin. For instance, the Irish settlers were predominantly Presbyterian and Roman Catholic followers. These churches attracted wealthy white businessmen, white professionals, white laborers, and any other members allowed to worship with them including some blacks.

4. Explain who Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois were and their philosophies on race. Make sure to include how they were similar or how they differed in their philosophies.
Booker T. Washington was a great African-American orator, author, educator, U.S president advisor, and founder Tuskegee Institute. He was born as a slave on April 5, 1856 in Hale’s Ford, Virginia. He attended Virginia Union University (Wayland Seminary) and worked at Hampton University. He authored fourteen books including his autobiography that was published in 1901.
He used diplomacy means to improve the working relations between Blacks and Whites. Washington tirelessly assisted the black community in achieving higher education so that they could improve their finances and understanding of U.S legal system. He believed educating Blacks would assist them attain skills necessary for creating and running Civil Rights Movements. He was an influential political leader and had close relations with Republican Party leaders. To this, he was sought by President Theodore Roosevelt and President William Howard for political advice. Washington his influence to create a nationwide network that brought together black community leaders, educators, and businessmen. He believed Blacks could gain equal social rights through prudence, intelligence, thrift, industry, and property. He was opposed to using of confrontation such as protests and riots as a way of agitating for Blacks social rights. He believed racism could be overcome in the long run if Blacks cooperated with the White individuals who were anti-racism and supported Blacks’ agitation for equal rights.

W. E. B. Du Bois was a great African-American civil rights activist, educator, historian, author, editor, poet, Pan-Africanist, and sociologist. Du Bois was born on 23rd of February 1868 in Great Barrington, Massachusetts. He did newspaper reporting during his youth. He joined Fisk University after finishing high school where he studied arts. He taught summer classes in African American schools in a rural district of Nashville in 1888. He also studied at Harvard and became the first Black American to earn a doctorate. He became a professor of economics, sociology and history at Atlanta University. Du Bois founded became a leader of Niagara Movement, a protest group comprising of African-American scholars and professionals. He is also credited for helping form the National Association fro the Advancement of colored People (NAACP) in 1909. NAACP agitated for integration in social institutions as a way ending racism. He was a director and editor of NAACP’s monthly magazine called Crisis. He used the magazine to castigate white Americans for their supporting racism. The Crisis magazine became the source of pride and information to African-Americans.
In 1934, Du Bois took a completely different strategy from NAACP when he was advocating taking control of the social institution and economic cooperation. He resigned NAACP and Crisis magazine because he was opposed to integration. He presented the African-Americans grievances before the United Nations when he was serving as U.N convention consultant. He was founder member of Pan-African movement that was wanted to improve conditions of people of African descent. He joined black intellectuals from African countries and West Indies in London during the First Universal Races Congress. He also organized several Pan-African congresses that brought together black intellectuals from Africa, the United States, and the West Indies. Meetings criticized colonialism and oppressions of Africans and called for its alleviation.
Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois were both leaders of African-Americans who agitated for recognition Blacks’ social rights. They had hope for their generation and future generations. They differed on strategies for African-American social and economic progress. Washington preached a philosophy of racial solidarity, self-help, and accommodation. He advocated cooperation between Blacks and Whites. He advised Blacks to accept segregation and discrimination for the moment and focus on elevating their status through hard work and material prosperity. Du Bois, on the other hand, advocated direct political agitation and mass action/protest. He believed African-Americans should demand equal rights.

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