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Program Report with Group

 
Program Report with Group

Introduction
Background to the program

With the increase in the prevalence of people suffering from weight-related health problems in Australia, there is an urgent need for people to engage on health fitness activities. According to Pretty, Angus, Bain, Barton, Gladwell, Hine and Sellens (2009), studies have shown that health fitness programs are some of the most effective initiatives for improving human health, especially because they are effective in reducing weight by burning calories. Although there are several health fitness activities in use today, the game of Bowling is perhaps the most popular and effective because it is recommended to every person, regardless of age and gender. At the North West Disability Service Inc., the game of Bowling is one of the most popular activities used to engage the obese people as a way of helping them burn calories and reduce weight. The program runs in all the centres of the institution. However, the program attended in this research was based at AMF Casital Hell Bowling, a center that caters for the aged, disabled and those with health problems. In addition, the program runs on Mondays and takes several hours depending on the type of Bowling game involved. For instance, a program for indoor bowling runs for 4×2 hour sessions, while gardening bowling program runs on a 6×1 hour session. For every session attended, the researcher will plan, implement and evaluate the program in order to determine its health and physical benefits to the clients. In addition, the attendants were aged between 20 and 40 years.

Problem statement

Health fitness programs provided in various institutions throughout the country are arguably some of most effective initiatives in improving human health, especially in terms of checking individual weight. More than 90 million people in the world enjoy the game of Bowling. In Australia, more than 500,000 people enjoy the game for various reasons, ranging from recreation to health fitness (Novak, 2011). At the NWDS, Bowling programs are provided for the disabled, ageing and people with weight problems. The aim is to ensure that the people with obese burn calories and regain their normal body weight, which is expected to cope with threats of diabetes, obesity, cardiac problems and other diseases associated with overweight (Jung, Li, Janissa, Gladys & Lee, 2009). However, few studies have focused on providing a description of the effectiveness of bowling game on client’s health problems, especially in young obese people in Australia.

Target population

The researcher worked with clients aged between 20 and 40 years, who sought health fitness programs at the AMF Casital Hell Bowling. The center is run by NWDS and seeks to help individuals reduce weight, regain their weight, gain psychosocial benefits associated with the game and strengthen friendships. The researcher worked with both male and female clients. In addition, the clients had no other disability apart from the weight problem. They were also working people or students in colleges and universities.

Nature and extent of the problem

Review of Literature

The health and psychosocial benefits of bowling game were considered in the last few decades. However, the bowling is one of the oldest gaming activities in the human history. For instance, studies have shown that the primitive game originated in Egypt around 3200 BC. In addition, about 2000 years ago, Roman soldiers tossed stone objects close to other objects during their training and leisure. The game eventually evolved to the modern Bocce bowling game that is popular in Italy. By 1300s, the game was popular in England and Germany.

Today, more than 90 million people in 95 countries play the bowling game. Currently, there are several forms of bowling. For instance, Candle bowling, Ten Pin bowling, lawn, Dick and Five pin are some of the most popular bowling varieties in Australia.

According to Patterson and Pegg (2009), the health benefits of bowling are similar to those of other games such as cricket and lawn tennis. In fact, bowling has been shown to have higher capacities to burn calories than other related games. It is worth noting that bowling is an aerobic exercise (Omar-Fauzee, Mohd-Ali, Geok & Ibrahim, 2010). In fact, studies have shown that it is similar to walking with hand-held weights, but bowling is more effective as it involves all parts of the body, including the brain (Crust, 2007). The ability of the game to burn calories helps in promoting weight loss. An average attendant of the game walks approximately 6 out of 10 of a mile during a series of three games (Daley, 2009). Studies have shown that the three-game series burns between 170 and 300 calories of fat for a person attending the program on average basis (Mellecker & McManus, 2008). Studies have further shown that an obese person weighing about 200 pounds can burn more than 270 calories per hours when playing the game (Blau, 2012).

Secondly, the game helps in maintaining and improving muscle tone and strength. While playing the game, a person must twist his or her arms and body (Pretty, 2005). The twisting and swinging of the ball allows the players to flex, bend, twist and stretch shoulder, arm, leg and chest muscles (Steele & Zurcher, 2003). This exercise allows players to maintain the muscle tone, balance, strength and flexibility (Jancey, Clarke, Howat, Maycock & Lee, 2009). Thirdly, the game reduces the risk of some diseases such as stroke, cardiac attacks, diabetes and high blood pressure. An important aspect of the game is that it helps players avoid sedentary life, which is a major risk factor of the diseases.

When helping the obese people play the game for health and psychosocial benefits, an attendant must ensure that the program involves rules and regulations (Smith, Talaei-Khoei, Ray & Ray, 2009). The program must involve a staff of more than five attendants to control the players’ progress in addition to monitoring their behavior. The staff must meet regularly to lay out strategies and remind the clients about the rules and regulations (Schott & Hodgetts, 2006). For example, the clients must always come in the right clothing for the exercise (Bannister, 2002). They must be clean. In addition, they must respect each other, regardless of a person’s ability to take the activities and progress. This is important in reducing stigmatization and low-self esteem in the clients who cannot handle some tasks.
Determined priorities

Bowling is not meant to be a task for improving health only, but also a way of having fun and involving a client’s mind. In addition, the aim is not only to improve health, but also to gain psychosocial benefits. Therefore, the attendant must ensure that the game is as fun as possible and that every client is interested in taking part.

Risk factors

Since the game involves vigorous activities such as twisting with heavy balls, it exposes the players to a number of risks. For example, the weight of the ball must be provided according to the weight, age and health conditions of the player. Otherwise, the ball could harm the player. In addition, the right posture, steps, movements and direction of twisting and throwing the ball must be considered to avoid physical harm.

Current Service Provision at NEWDS

Current service

At NEWDS, the researcher attended weekly event of bowling, each taking between 3 and 6 hours. The institution offers bowling service to all members of the society, regardless of gender and age. It is also worth noting that the clients are not required to make payments for the services because donors and the state government fund the organization.

Rationale for the program

The institution provides service to the public but focuses on disabled people as a way of helping them maintain health, exercise their bodies and involve themselves in recreational tasks. In addition, it allows them to improve their relationships with each other and form friendships (Rosenberg, Depp, Vahia, Reichstadt, Palmer, Kerr & Jeste, 2010). In this way, they are set to gain psychosocial benefits. By involving them in these activities, the institution seeks to reduce the risks of developing depression, low-self esteem as well as health problems.

New Program Fit

NEWDS has set up a program at AMF Casital Hell Bowling as a way of reaching out to the disabled people who are interested in taking part in the game. In fact, most of the institutions providing bowling services to the public do not target the disabled, which leaves them out of an important activity. The AMF Casital Hell Bowling has provided the disabled and obese people with a new and unique opportunity to exercise their rights to leisure and improve their physical and psychological health.

The Program

The program runs for 3 to 6 hours every week. It is offered on Monday of every week at the AMF Casital Hell Bowling. Participants are assigned to a pre-determined number of members of the staff. For example, the researcher was one of the three members of staff assigned to help and monitor 8 clients. Three of the clients were males, while the rest were females. In addition, two were physically disabled, while 6 were normal but obese. The task was to introduce every member to the rules and regulations of the program and the game. The staff members are supposed to do a demonstration of the game and involve every member in practice before they can play the game on their own. Moreover, the staff members must pay attention to the posture and direction of the body and the ball each member prefers to avoid physical injuries.

Training takes about one hour for every new client before he or she is allowed to participate. It is recommended that the experienced clients help their new colleagues in understanding the game.
Outcome Analysis

An analysis of the outcomes of the program is taken after every three months of active participation. It involves monitoring of progress in participants weight, concentration, active involvement and interest in the game (Crone & Guy, 2008). It also involves an analysis of weekly medical tests to determine the progress of the clients health needs (Wollersheim, Merkes, Shields, Liamputtong, Wallis, Reynolds & Koh, 2010). In the group, the researcher found that out of the 5 obese clients, only one did not attend the occasion for three days in the entire period. However, everyone of them reduced body mass by at least 3 Kg. In addition, all the 8 members reported that they were happy to learn and play the game. They reported that the game gave them an opportunity to mix with new people and form relationships. The disabled clients reported that they were interested to remain at the function than stay in their homes for the whole day doing nothing. In addition, all the 8 clients reported that they were feeling emotionally attached to their colleagues as well as the members of the staff.

Conclusion and recommendations

From the analysis of the program outcomes, it is clear that the game of bowling is effective in achieving physical, physiological and psychological health (Ciairano, Liubicich & Rabaglietti, 2010). It is a good way of providing recreational services to the disabled as well as the obese (Razman, Cheong, Wan Abas & Abu Osman, 2012). It is different from other activities because it is fun and has no age or gender limit. The outcomes indicate that the program is fun and effective in providing emotional and social attachment to the clients.

Therefore, it is recommended as a method of providing health, social and psychological fitness to the disabled as well as the obese people.
 
References

Bannister, R. (2002). Sport, physical recreation, and the national health. British medical journal, 4(5842), 711.
Blau, L. (2012). What Types of Physical Benefits Can Be Obtained From Bowling? Retrieved from http://healthyliving.azcentral.com/types-physical-benefits-can-obtained-bowling-3482.html
Ciairano, S., Liubicich, M. E., & Rabaglietti, E. (2010). The effects of a physical activity programme on the psychological wellbeing of older people in a residential care facility: An experimental study. Ageing and Society, 30(4), 609.
Crone, D., & Guy, H. (2008). ‘I know it is only exercise, but to me it is something that keeps me going’: A qualitative approach to understanding mental health service users’ experiences of sports therapy. International journal of mental health nursing, 17(3), 197-207.
Crust, L. (2007). Mental toughness in sport: A review. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 5(3), 270-290.
Daley, A. J. (2009). Can exergaming contribute to improving physical activity levels and health outcomes in children?. Pediatrics, 124(2), 763-771.
Jancey, J. M., Clarke, A., Howat, P., Maycock, B., & Lee, A. H. (2009). Perceptions of physical activity by older adults: A qualitative study. Health education journal, 68(3), 196-206.
Jung, Y., Li, K. J., Janissa, N. S., Gladys, W. L. C., & Lee, K. M. (2009). Games for a better life: effects of playing Wii games on the well-being of seniors in a long-term care facility. In Proceedings of the Sixth Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment (p. 5). ACM.
Mellecker, R. R., & McManus, A. M. (2008). Energy expenditure and cardiovascular responses to seated and active gaming in children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162(9), 886.
Novak, J. (2011). Game development essentials: an introduction. Cengage Learning
Omar-Fauzee, M. S., Mohd-Ali, M., Geok, S. K., & Ibrahim, N. (2010). The participation motive in the Paralympics. J Alt Soc Sci, 2(1), 250-272.
Patterson, I., & Pegg, S. (2009). Serious leisure and people with intellectual disabilities: Benefits and opportunities. Leisure Studies, 28(4), 387-402.
Pretty, J. N. (2005). A countryside for health and wellbeing: The physical and mental health benefits of green exercise. Sheffield: Countryside Recreation Network.
Pretty, J., Angus, C., Bain, M., Barton, J., Gladwell, V., Hine, R., & Sellens, M. (2009). Nature, childhood, health and life pathways. Occasional Paper, 2.
Razman, R., Cheong, J. P., Wan Abas, W. A. B., & Abu Osman, N. A. (2012). Anthropometric and strength characteristics of tenpin bowlers with different playing abilities. Biology of Sport, 29(1), 33.
Rosenberg, D., Depp, C. A., Vahia, I. V., Reichstadt, J., Palmer, B. W., Kerr, J., & Jeste, D. V. (2010). Exergames for subsyndromal depression in older adults: a pilot study of a novel intervention. The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, 18(3), 221.
Schott, G., & Hodgetts, D. (2006). Health and Digital Gaming The Benefits of a Community of Practice. Journal of health psychology, 11(2), 309-316.
Smith, S. T., Talaei-Khoei, A., Ray, M., & Ray, P. (2009). Electronic games for aged care and rehabilitation. In e-Health Networking, Applications and Services, 2009. Healthcom 2009. 11th International Conference on (pp. 42-47). IEEE.
Steele, P. D., & Zurcher, L. A. (2003). Leisure Sports as” Ephemeral Roles”: An Exploratory Study. The Pacific Sociological Review, 16(3), 345-356.
Wollersheim, D., Merkes, M., Shields, N., Liamputtong, P., Wallis, L., Reynolds, F., & Koh, L. (2010). Physical and psychosocial effects of Wii video game use among older women. International Journal of Emerging Technologies and Society, 8(2), 85-98.

 
Appendices
Appendix 1: weekly outcome analysis sheet for the every disabled person
Name:
Age:
Gender:
Condition:
Day Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9
Weight
Psychological condition
Physical condition
Remarks (progress)

Appendix 2: Weekly analysis sheet for the obese
Name:
Age:
Gender:
Condition:
Day Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Week 7 Week 8 Week 9
Weight
(kg)
Health risks

Physician’s Remarks (progress)
Appendix 3: outcome analysis sheet for the disabled
Name of the client Age gender Condition at entry Condition after three months

Appendix 4: outcome analysis sheet for the obese
Name Age Gender Weight at entry Final weight at exit

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