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A Major Crime Problem in slum Brazil

. Who is my Audience?
• My audience will be the chief of the police in my city.
2. Purpose of the information
• All of my information will be on gun and drug in the city of Brazil (slum)

4. Develop at least 10 possible primary sources.
1. Insightcrime.org
2. Nytimes.com
3. Giveachildlife.org
4. Theguardian.com
5. News.com.au
6. Independent.ie
7. Bbc.co.uk
8. Rt.com
9. Dailymail.co.uk
10. www.smithsonianmag.com
5. Develop at least 12 key questions.
1. Why Rio slum has so many drug dealers?
2. What age does these Brazilian doing drug?
3. What kind of drug do they sale?
4. It is legal to carry a gun in Rio slum?
5. Where do they obtain all of these weapons?
6. What life is like for a child to live in Rio slum?
7. Do they have enough Police Officer to handle all of this drug gang?
8. In a nearer future does people that live in slum has a future?
9. Do they have hope for the violent city?
10. How is life like in Rio slum?
11. Does law enforcement care for the Slum?
12. Do people that live there afraid going out at night?

A Major Crime Problem in slum Brazil

Introduction

The urban slums in Brazil are characterized by poor living conditions and runaway criminal activities. Murder, mugging, drug dealing, arms trafficking, prostitution, and organized crime are daily occurrence in many Rio slum areas. The main aim of this research is to explore gun and drug crime in Rio slum area and the effects these crimes have on the youth living in slums. The research questions that arise for this research are: Why Rio slum has so many drug dealers? What age does these Brazilian doing drug? What kind of drug do they sell? It is legal to carry a gun in Rio slum? Where do they obtain all of these weapons? What life is like for a child to live in Rio slum? Do they have enough Police Officer to handle all of this drug gang? In a nearer future does people that live in slum has a future? Do they have hope for the violent city? How is life like in Rio slum? Does law enforcement care for the Slum? Do people that live there afraid going out at night?

Background information

Numerous researches on crime have been conducted by different criminology theorist. In 1968 Herbert Packer modeled crime control and due process to help police in combating crime. The model focused on crime fighting as the main objective. In 1982, Michael King identified four other models name: bureaucratic, power, medical, and status passage model. Robert Peel’s principle of policing that identifies the purpose of police existence is to prevent crime and disorder (Akers, 2013). Classical criminology belief that individual criminals make rational decisions while engaging in crime. The belief is based on assumption that individuals have free will and are guided by hedonism and maximization of pleasure. Cesare Lombroso ideas were influenced by evolution ideas advanced by Charles Darwin. Lombroso ideas are also referred to as the law of biogenetics. He explained that biological defects manifested themselves in criminal’s physical characteristics such as sloping head, excessively long arm, receding chins and many others. In the modern days, crime theory has become theoretically and complex. The Chicago School of Sociology introduced the concept of social disorganization in 1920s and 1930s. Some of the theorists associated with social disorganization theories include Sutherlands, Park, Burgess, and Thomas. They were concerned with the social ecology of the city where a city was portrayed as a series of zones glowing from the center of the city; each zone’s has unique economic and social characteristics. The area near the city or the transition zone received much focus because new immigrants settled in these inexpensive areas. The zone of transition manifested much social problems such as crime and ill health; these areas develop informally and many of them become slums (Hagedorn, 2008).

Importance of the study

The study is important because it will add more insight to growing number of criminal justice literature. It will also assist in developing new policies aimed at controlling the emerging crime in the society.

Hypotheses
The hypothesis that arises for this research is:
Youth are more likely to be victims of crime than adults

Method
The study was carried out in Rio de Janeiro which represents 3 percent of Brazil population. According Population census 2010 Rio city population was 6,323,037. A big percent of the population is concentrated in Rio’s favelas which are characterized by informal settlements.

Procedure

The study involved gathering of internet data related to gun and drug crime in Rio de Janeiro slums areas. The data was obtained from newspapers, magazines, local government reports, justice department reports, and crime statistics from government bureau. The data was filtered in order to focus on gun and drug crimes involving youths and young adults.

Results
The results obtained have advance the hypothesis: Youth are more likely to be victims of crime than adults. The research findings indicate about one-third of slum areas are controlled by drug lords. The study indicates that youth engage in drug as early as 10 years, and at the age of 12- 17 years they start carrying guns. The most common drugs the youth trade in include marijuana, crack and cocaine. The study reveals that children are actively involved in drugs and gang violence. Corrupt law enforcement officers and criminals are involved in arms and drugs sales. Over 50 percent of the Rio slum children experience has experience threats from criminal gangs. The government has intensified the fight against drugs and gun crime through a special police force. The youth in Rio slums experience crime each passing and youth accounts for 40 percent of the death attributed to crime (Wikström et al., 2012).

Findings
The research coincides with the previous research such as social disorganization theories advanced by Sutherlands, Park, Burgess, and Thomas. The research explains how the slums develop using social ecology theory. The previous research explains why the zone of transition is characterized by social ills such as crime and lack of basis infrastructures.

Limitations

The study will not be void of limitation. The researcher has utilized a small and convenient sample in conducting the research. For instance, in this study, it will only be possible to study data available in the internet, news paper, and reports.

General discussion

The research findings indicate that 20 percent of Rio de Janeiro inhabitants live in shanty town. In addition, about one-third of slum areas are controlled by drug lords. The data available show increased government its efforts of keeping drug gangs away. However, poverty and unemployment continue to push many youth into drugs and crime as way of escaping from poverty. New study indicates that youth engage in drug as early as 10 years, and at the age of 12- 17 years they start carrying guns. Youth are involved in petty theft and robbery that bring small amount of before graduating into narcotic and arms dealing. The most common drugs the youth trade in include marijuana, crack and cocaine. Recent study indicates that 74 percent of slum youth had used marijuana, 36 percent had used cocaine, and 21 percent had consumed crack. Rio’s law forbids illegal gun possessions, however, street culture advanced by gangs advocate for aggressive reaction to defend one’s reputation. The gangs have a military command structure to protest drug business; they involve children and women who signal to others if rival gangs or police are about to enter (Alves & Evanson, 2011).

The guns find their way into streets of Rio through corrupt ties between corrupt politician, illegal businessmen, policemen, and justice system officers. The gangs which control drugs also control illegal arms sales; the gang leaders bribe the corrupt police not to disturb their illegal businesses. Children living in Rio slums are exposed to crime at a very early age. Report of studies carried out in Rio slum areas focusing on 8th grade students indicated that over 50 percent had experienced crime. The report showed that 28 percent had been mugged, 25 percent reported being pursued by gangs, and 20 percent reported having received physical harm threats. The report also shows that over 50 percent of youth had been victimized by violence.

The number of police officer in Brazil is not enough to combat the level of crime in the slum areas. The situation is complicated by the community respect to the gangs because of their riches. In the near future the crime rate is expected to go down if the police continue making high level arrests and penalizing the law breakers. Economic growth and job creation will replace drug dealing in future and change the slum communities for the better. Life in Rio slums is very tough due to the existence of social ills such as prostitution, drug dealing and gun violence. Young people experience violence each passing day and young boys are recruited into gangs at a very early age.
The law enforcement agencies have doubled their effort in their quest to control drugs and gun crimes in Rio slum areas. The government is pursuing new security policy in which heavily armed Special Forces have been deployed in dangerous slums to maintain security. People living in slum areas rarely go out during the night due to armed criminals’ activities such as kidnapping, mugging and murder (Carvalho & Soares, 2013).

Conclusions

Exposing children to crimes at early age is not only illegal but a danger to their lives. The high rate of gun and drug crime in slum areas needs to be addressed urgently. The law enforcement urgencies may be required to find new and sophisticated strategies in order to wipe out drug and gun cartels.

Strengths/weaknesses

The weakness of this research emanates from data sources because there are no tools of verifying the accuracy of the internet data.

Recommendations

This research has exposed problems related with drugs and gun crime and effects of crime on youth living in the slum areas. However, more research is required in order to address many other crimes besides drugs and gun crimes.

References

Akers, R. L. (2013). Criminological theories: Introduction and evaluation. Routledge.
Alves, M., & Evanson, P. (2011). Living in the crossfire: Favela residents, drug dealers, and police violence in Rio de Janeiro. Temple University Press.
Carvalho, L., & Soares, R. R. (2013). Living on the edge: Youth entry, career and exit in drug-selling gangs (No. 7189). Discussion Paper Series, Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit.
Hagedorn, J. (2008). A world of gangs: armed young men and gangsta culture (Vol. 14). U of Minnesota Press.
Wikström, P. O. H., Oberwittler, D., Treiber, K., & Hardie, B. (2012). Breaking rules: The social and situational dynamics of young people’s urban crime. Oxford University Press.

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